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What should men eat for fertility?

December 24, 2018
male fertility diet, toronto naturopath, naturopathic doctor toronto, fertility naturopath

Spoiler alert: Men can contribute to infertility. 

It’s not just a woman’s issue. And what you’re eating (or not eating), can affect your fertility success. Let’s dive into a couple of things that can help improve sperm parameters in men. 

Fatty Acids and Fertility

The sperm cell membrane high in fatty acids, and these acids are necessary for sperm function. The membrane is pretty important when it comes to fertilization – it helps with cell maturation, penetrating and fusing with the egg. 

The fatty acids that you need to do these jobs can’t be made by your body, so you need to either eat fish, supplement with fish oil, or eat nuts and seeds. Studies have shown that male fertility patients who have a higher intake of omega-3, have more normal sperm. A study looking at walnuts (which are a great source of omega 3s) have been related to higher sperm parameters – vitality, motility (how sperm move), and morphology (how sperm look). Another study showed that men’s fish intake was related to shorter time to pregnancy and a lower risk of infertility. 

It is important to pay attention to mercury levels in fish, and consider avoiding fish with high mercury levels as it may impact fertility. 

Soy and Fertility

Women aren’t the only ones cautious about soy. From my experience, men are pretty fearful too. When we look at the research on dietary soy and men’s health it’s pretty conflicting. While one study mentions that dietary isoflavone intake is associated with higher sperm count and motility, another says that soy intake is associated with lower sperm concentration. 

Here’s the thing, if you’re vegan or vegetarian and soy makes up a large part of your diet, aim for non-GMO and organic sources. 

Dairy & Meat and Fertility

Research on diary and sperm parameters is pretty mixed. One study looking at young men and dairy consumption showed that intake of dairy products (like milk) have been related to lower testosterone, FSH and LH levels. 

When it comes to meat, the same results exist. Some studies show that meat is unrelated to sperm parameters, some show that processed meat affects sperm counts. 

Something to consider though is your cardiovascular health. While that Double Big Mac might not do anything to your sperm, it might affect your heart health! Keep in mind that your body 

Fruits & Vegetables and Fertility

Unsurprisingly, fruits and vegetables are cornerstone of good health. But, many of them are sprayed with pesticides. One study showed that consumption of high-pesticide-residue fruits and vegetable was associated with poor sperm quality in men attending a fertility clinic. 

So what does this mean? Choose organic when eating foods off the Dirty Dozen list. 

Next Steps

Overall, the review that I read didn’t go into as much detail as the female version. However, it did mention that if you’re going to abide by a diet, then the Mediterranean Diet is a good bet. It’s high in seafood, vegetables and fruits, whole grains, etc. Basically you’re not eating processed and packaged foods.  

Changing a diet can be pretty difficult. I’m of the mind of taking it a week at a time, so if you’re introducing a new food or avoiding an old (but problematic) favourite, do it in weekly increments. 

When I was giving up gluten, cow dairy and eggs, I picked one and committed to that for a week, then gave up another, etc. When introducing new foods like salmon, commit to eating it once a week, find different ways to prepare it, etc. Changing your habits around food don’t need to be difficult. But like all things, it does take some work. 

For more information on how you can boost your fertility and improve your sperm parameters, consider working with a naturopathic doctor. If you have any questions, feel free to get in touch!

Reference

Nassan, F., Chavarro, J. and Tanrikut, C. (2018). Diet and men’s fertility: does diet affect sperm quality?. Fertility and Sterility, 110(4), pp.570-577.

What should women eat for fertility?

December 17, 2018
female fertility diet, toronto naturopath, naturopathic doctor toronto, fertility naturopath

It might come as a surprise that few people think about preconception health. And to be honest, when they do, it’s usually because of fertility struggles. Diet plays a huge role in how we feel and function, and provides the necessary building blocks to support conception.

Carbs and Fertility

Carbs might make up a significant part of your diet. When it comes to nutritional science, there’s a lot of learn about carbs, but I want to focus on 2 things: the glycemic index and glycemic load. 

The glycemic index is a value assigned to a particular food on how fast or slow it causes an increase in your blood glucose level.

The glycemic load combined quality and quantity of carbohydrates. It’s calculated by the amount of food you eat and the glycemic index of the particular food.The glycemic load is also associated with higher risks of ovulatory infertility.

In PCOS, it’s been found that women will often consume foods with a higher glycemic index. When women reduce their carb intake (or perhaps choose carbs with a lower index and load), their insulin sensitivity will improve, testosterone will decrease, and ovulation will occur (this is important, because anovulation is a key symptom in PCOS).

Fats and Fertility

Let’s clear something up. Fat isn’t bad. Yes, some are better than others and there are some you should avoid completely. But you need fat to make hormones, help your eggs mature and to get that tiny blastocyst to implant! 

Unsurprisingly, you should be avoiding trans fats. They increase insulin resistance, may prevent ovulation from happening, and decrease your chance of getting pregnant.

To get into specifics, omega 3 fatty acids are associated with progesterone production in the luteal phase (this is important!) and a reduced risk of anovulation. In women undergoing IVF, omega 3 fatty acid intake was associated with better embryo morphology. 

Protein and Fertility

You should be eating at least 1g of protein per kg of body weight (more if you’re active). Protein comes in different forms: animal and vegetable. One study showed that ovulation was negatively affected by increased animal protein. While another study showed that although fish, eggs, and processed meats didn’t have an effect on ovulation, vegetable protein intake decreased anovulation. Blastocyst formation in assisted reproductive technology decreased in patients consuming more red meat. But it was positively affected by fish consumption.

Now before you head on off to the local fish monger, you want to pay attention to fish and mercury content (as it may interfere with hormones and fertility). Fish to avoid would be bigeye tuna, king mackerel and swordfish.

Soy protein often gets a bad rap, but can actually be beneficial in women seeking fertility treatments. Soy isoflavone supplements were associated with improvement in reproductive outcomes, increased live birth after clomiphene administration, and higher endometrial thickness and ongoing pregnancy rates after IVF and ICSI. 

A couple things to consider before ordering your soy latte – choose organic, non-GMO soy. And if you have a thyroid condition, it’s best to avoid dietary soy altogether.

Next Steps

It might be obvious that a diet that leans towards fast food/processed foods and few fruits and vegetables is probably not the best. And when it comes to a diet in particular, adopting a Mediterranean diet (which basically has a foundation of vegetable and fruit, whole grains and fish) has shown to be effective in a few studies. 

Pesticides and other chemicals in our foods may also affect reproductive success, so if possible, choose organic when you can. Basically, if any of the fruits and vegetables that you eat appear on the Dirty Dozen, eat the organic version instead. 

When choosing meats, aim to get your meats from local farms if possible. And grass-fed and antibiotic-free are great options too. 

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References

Chiu, Y., Chavarro, J. and Souter, I. (2018). Diet and female fertility: doctor, what should I eat?. Fertility and Sterility, 110(4), pp.560-569.

Endometriosis in Teens

December 10, 2018
endometriosis in teens, toronto naturopath, naturopathic doctor toronto, teen naturopath, danforth naturopath

It’s time to listen to your body. 

Especially if you’re experiencing period pain. 

You might’ve been told that period pain is normal. But that’s not exactly true. Period pain is a common symptom, but isn’t always normal.

Cramping in your lower pelvis or back is normal around the start of your period, but experiencing severe pain isn’t. If you feel a stabbing, burning, or throbbing pain that doesn’t go away with pain killers, and is causing you to miss school or work, and affecting your quality of life – you need to figure out what’s going on.

One of the emerging causes of period pain in teens is endometriosis. Endometriosis happens in about 10% of women who menstruate (likely more!). It was previously thought that teens didn’t have endometriosis because research only looked at older women who were having trouble getting pregnant.

What is endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease that occurs when endometrial tissue grows outside your uterus. This tissue can grow anywhere in your body (it’s even been found on the lungs and brain), but it’s most commonly found on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterine surface, bowel and the lining of the pelvic cavity.

When you experience your monthly period, you also experience internal bleeding and ultimately scar tissue will form. Sounds great, right? #noway

Common endometriosis symptoms in adults

Some of the common symptoms associated with endometriosis are:

Other symptoms include:

How does endometriosis present in teens?

You might notice pain that doesn’t quite sync with your period (aka. noncyclic pelvic pain). Also, if your mom or sister have endometriosis, or if you have a history of atopic disease (ex. eczema, asthma) – you should be checked!

Endometrial lesions might be found between your ovaries, peritoneum, pouch of Douglas, uterosacral ligaments and rectovaginal septum. Typically, the lesions may present differently than they would in adults. Yours might be more red and clear. 

Because of these differences, this may contribute to your delay in diagnosis, and ultimately treatment. Obviously this lag may negatively impact your quality of life. 

Warning signs in teens

Pay attention to these signs:

  • Extended use of anti-inflammatory drugs (ex. NSAIDs)

  • Family history of endometriosis (ex. mom and sister)

  • Frequent absence from school during your period, and skipping exercise because of pain or a heavy flow

  • Birth control prescription before you turn 18 because of pain

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

You can’t diagnose endometriosis through a blood test. Instead, the gold standard of testing is a laparoscopic exam. This is considered a minimally-invasive surgery where small incisions are made in the abdomen to both confirm the presence of and remove endometrial lesions.

Doctors may suggest ultrasounds to see if you have endo, but that test can’t completely rule endo out. 

Conventional Treatment of Endometriosis

Unfortunately there’s no cure for endometriosis. But treatment should include controlling pain and preventing lesion progression. 

The first line treatment in endometriosis is birth control (usually a combined pill). This may actually be worthwhile to try if the pain is incredibly severe, and not responding to regular painkillers. Nevertheless, there are a few things to consider if you plan on taking birth control: 

A huge study in 2016 investigated different types of birth control and how they were associated with antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression. Researchers found that teens (between 15 to 19) are more sensitive to depressive symptoms and antidepressants than adults. This was seen in teens using the combined pill or progestin-only pill. The study did show that the incidence of depression and antidepressants use decreased with age. 

Teens with endometriosis report impaired physical and mental health quality of life. As well as physical pain, difficulty in participating in daily activities, physical activities, and social events. Therefore all of these factors must be considered when determining the best treatment route, or adjunctive supportive therapies. 

Naturopathic Treatment of Endometriosis

Once again there isn’t a cure for endometriosis, but you can do a couple of things to manage the pain and improve quality of life. There are some supplements that you can take, but it should really be done under the supervision of a health practitioner like a Naturopathic Doctor. 

You may want to consider:

  • FODMAPs diet or an anti-inflammatory diet

  • Curcumin

  • N-acetyl cysteine

  • EPA/DHA

  • Selenium

  • Vitamin E

Next Steps

If you’ve been experiencing any of the warning signs, it may be time to talk to your doctor about endometriosis. 

If you found this information helpful, I would encourage you to download my 
FREE EndoDiet meal guide and plan. It goes through everything we discussed: foods that are safe and that should be avoided, and a 7 day meal plan and preparation guide!

References

Dowlut-McElroy, T. and Strickland, J. (2017). Endometriosis in adolescents. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 29(5), pp.306-309.

Gallagher, J., DiVasta, A., Vitonis, A., Sarda, V., Laufer, M. and Missmer, S. (2018). The Impact of Endometriosis on Quality of Life in Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(6), pp.766-772.

Reid, R., Steel, A., Wardle, J. and Adams, J. (2018). Naturopathic Medicine for the Management of Endometriosis, Dysmenorrhea, and Menorrhagia: A Content Analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.

Zannoni, L., Forno, S., Paradisi, R. and Seracchioli, R. (2016). Endometriosis in Adolescence: Practical Rules for an Earlier Diagnosis. Pediatric Annals, 45(9), pp.e332-e335.